宇宙科学談話会

ISAS Space Science Colloquium & Space Science Seminar

FY2023

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Practical Applications of Planetary Science: JAXA Exploration Missions and Space Startups

Mr. Hyodo Ryuki
Dept. of Solar System Sciences

In this presentation, I will introduce practical applications of planetary science that I have worked on since joining JAXA. Specifically, this includes planetary exploration plans such as the MMX and OPENS missions, as well as activities of the space startup, Astromine, which focuses on asteroid business.

A2F Conference hall (1236), Via Zoom

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Southern Hemisphere Asteroid Radar Program (SHARP)

Mr. Shinji Horiuchi
NASA Canberra Deep Space Communication Complex (CDSCC)/ Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation(CSIRO)

Astronomical radar observations have been used to probe surfaces of all the solid planets and many smaller bodies in the solar system. More recently, there has been considerable interest in using radar observations as a technique to characterize near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) and determine their orbits more precisely. There is a three-fold motivation for performing radar observations of asteroids. First, asteroids represent primitive remnants of the early solar system and characterization of their properties such as shape, rotation state and existence of satellites can provide insights into their evolution and parent populations. Secondly, precise knowledge of asteroid orbits is essential to assess the extent that they might represent impact hazards to the Earth, and finally, they represent targets for spacecraft, both robotic and crewed. Historically, Goldstone and Arecibo planetary radar capabilities have made significant contributions to tracking many asteroids. However, their coverage has been limited to the northern hemisphere sky and consequently have missed a fraction of NEAs during Earth flybys. To fill the gap, over the past years we have developed and demonstrated a Southern Hemisphere radar capability using the Canberra Deep Space Communication Complex (CDSCC), part of the NASA Deep Space Network (DSN), as transmitters and the Parkes 64m Radio Telescope and the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) as receivers. By the end of 2023, we've successfully detected a total of 33 Near Earth Asteroids in total since the project started in 2015. We've also observed several space debris and dead satellites, including Halca (Muses-B satellite) made and launched by ISAS/JAXA.

A2F Conference hall (1236), Via Zoom

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A moon window onto deciHz gravitational wave

Mr. Andrea Maselli
Gran Sasso Science Institute

In this talk we will discuss the variety of astrophysical sources targeted by future deciHz gravitational wave detectors and in particular by the Lunar Gravitational Wave Antenna. We will focus on different families of coalescing compact binaries, analysing their main properties, the features of the signals they are expected to emit in the deciHz band, and their phenomenology for fundamental astro-physics problems. For each class of sources we will also discuss potential multi-band scenarios, based on simultaneous observations with both space and ground based future detectors.

A2F Conference hall (1236), Via Zoom

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A next-generation astronomy using the most energetic particles in the universe

Dr. Toshihiro Fujii
Nambu Yoichiro Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics (NITEP), Osaka Metropolitan University

Clarifying origins and acceleration mechanisms of the most energetic particles in the universe has been a decades-long endeavor, being one of the most intriguing mysteries in an interdisciplinary research among astroparticle physics, high-energy physics and nuclear physics. Since ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) are deflected less strongly by the Galactic and extra-galactic magnetic fields due to their enormous kinetic energies, their arrival directions are ostensively correlated with their origins. A next-generation "astronomy" using UHECRs is hence a potentially viable probe to unravel mysteries of extremely energetic phenomena in the nearby universe. In this talk, I will highlight an introductory cosmic-ray physics, detection techniques and latest results of the two giant observatories in operation; Telescope Array experiment and Pierre Auger Observatory, including their on-going upgrades and then address scientific objectives, requirements and developments for future UHECR observatories.

A2F Conference hall (1236), Via Zoom

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The search for the closest life-bearing exoplanets

Dr. Olivier Guyon
University of Arizona / NAOJ

There is now strong evidence that a significant fraction (probably >10%) of stars host potentially habitable planets with mass and surface temperature similar to Earth. A few nearby candidates, such as Prox Cen b, have already been identified, and are excellent targets for imaging and spectroscopy with future large telescopes.
Astronomers can now leverage multiple complementary techniques to identify habitable exoplanets and observe them. These can be combined to answer three main interconnected questions: (1) What is the statistical occurrence of habitable planets as a function of stellar type ? (2) Where are the nearest such planets ? (3) How can their atmospheres be characterized to reveal biological activity?
I will describe three specific emerging opportunities to answer these questions, enabled by recent technology advances. First, the PANOPTES project aims to deploy a ground-based network of low-cost wide-field imaging cameras for all-sky photometric monitoring to reveal transiting exoplanets. Second, the cubesat TOLIMAN astrometry mission will monitor the Alpha Cen system with sufficient precision to detect Earth-mass planet(s). Third, a photonic nulling optical circuit deployed on large ground and space telescopes, will remove the bright starlight and direct the exoplanet light to a spectrograph for identification of biomarkers.

New Bldg. A 2F Conf. room A (1257), Via Zoom

※通常と曜日が異なりますので、ご注意下さい。

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ESCAPADE: A twin small spacecraft mission to unveil Mars' hybrid magnetospher

原 拓也
University of California, Berkeley

ESCAPADE (Escape and Plasma Acceleration and Dynamics Explorers) is a Category 3 Class D Tailored small satellite mission selected under the SIMPLEX program and funded by NASA's Heliophysics division. ESCAPADE is a twin-spacecraft Mars mission concept that will revolutionize our understanding of how upstream solar wind momentum and energy flows throughout Mars' unique hybrid magnetosphere to drive ion and neutral escape to space, two processes which have helped shape Mars' climate evolution over solar system history. ESCAPADE will measure magnetic field strength and topology, ion distributions as well as suprathermal electron flows and thermal electron and ion densities, from precessing elliptical orbits. Our strategically-designed 11-months, 2-part scientific campaigns of temporally and spatially-separated multipoint measurements in different regions of Mars' diverse plasma environment, will allow the cause-and-effect of solar wind control of ion and neutral escape to be unraveled for the first time. ESCAPADE is due to launch in mid-2024, which is similar to Japanese MMX (Mars Moons eXploration) mission. This presentation will share the overview and current status of the ESCAPADE mission, and show the upcoming "golden" era that the multiple spacecraft (e.g., ESA's Mars Express (MEX), NASA's MAVEN, ESCAPADE, and JAXA's MMX, etc.), can simultaneously measure Mars' unique hybrid magnetosphere and ionosphere in the late-2020s.

New Bldg. A 2F Conf. room A (1257), Via Zoom

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The LIFE initiative - atmospheric characterization of terrestrial exoplanets in the mid-infrared with a large space-based nulling interferometer

Sascha P. Quanz
ETH Zurich

The international LIFE initiative has the goal to develop the science, the technology and a roadmap for an ambitious mid-infrared nulling interferometer space mission. Such a mission will allow humankind to detect and characterize the atmospheres of hundreds of nearby extrasolar planets - including dozens that are similar to Earth - by probing the objects' thermal emission spectra. As underlined in the "Voyage 2050" recommendations from the ESA Senior Committee, the direct detection of the thermal emission of temperate terrestrial exoplanets is given very high scientific priority in ESA's future science program and is considered as a candidate theme for a future L-class mission. By now, the LIFE initiative is supported by more than 300 international colleagues from various ESA member states, the USA, Japan, Canada, and Australia. In this talk I will summarize the current status of the activities. Special emphasis will be put on the unique discovery space for a large mid-infrared exoplanet mission, in particular for the detection and characterization of terrestrial exoplanets similar to Earth and Venus in the Solar System and the search for atmospheric biosignatures. Synergies between LIFE, ground-based efforts with the ELTs, and future ESA and NASA missions will be discussed and an overview of ongoing technology developments and related challenges will be given.

A2F Conference hall (1236), Via Zoom

※通常と曜日が異なりますので、ご注意下さい。

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Introduction to NASA Science Mission Directorate and James Webb Space Telescope

Dr. Nicola Fox / Dr. Mark Clampin
NASA

Senior NASA Science Mission Directorate leadership will provide a joint presentation on NASA science and the NASA James Webb Space Telescope. First, Dr. Nicola Fox, Associate Administrator of NASA's Science Mission Directorate, will give remarks on leading a globally interconnected program of scientific discovery, from exoplanet research to better understanding Earth's climate to understanding the influence of the sun on our planet and the solar system. Next, Dr. Fox will highlight the interdisciplinary and collaborative nature of SMD's work and will introduce Planetary Science Division Director Dr. Lori Glaze, Heliophysics Division Acting Division Director Ms. Peg Luce, Earth Science Division Deputy Division Director Dr. Julie Robinson, and Astrophysics Division Director Dr. Mark Clampin. Finally, Dr. Clampin will tell the story of the James Webb Space Telescope's development and will describe how he leads the international science community to answer some of the most compelling science questions of all time: is there life elsewhere in the universe? And are we alone?

A2F Conference hall (1236), Via Zoom

※通常と曜日が異なりますので、ご注意下さい。

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To Boldly Go Where No Robots Have Gone Before - EELS Robot to Spearhead a New Space Exploration Paradigm of Diving into the Unknowns (ロボット未踏の地へ果敢に挑む - 未知への挑戦という宇宙探査の新たなパラダイムを切り拓くEELSロボット)

Masahiro Ono(小野 雅裕(おの まさひろ))
NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory

In this talk we will discusses the need for a new paradigm in robotic space exploration that can effectively explore challenging destinations beyond Mars. The current incremental approach used for Mars exploration, based on detailed environmental knowledge, is not applicable in environments with long cruise times and limited launch opportunities. The proposed paradigm, called "into the unknown," emphasizes versatility and intelligent, risk-aware autonomy. The talk introduces the Exobiology Extant Life Surveyor (EELS), a highly versatile and intelligent snake-like robot designed for exploring Enceladus vents and other challenging targets. EELS has a high degree of mechanical flexibility, allowing it to adapt to unknown environments. It is equipped with a novel autonomy framework called NEO, which enables control and decision-making in extreme and unknown environments. Prototypes of EELS have been developed and successfully tested for surface and vertical mobility. The talk highlights the importance of versatility and intelligence in addressing environmental uncertainty and illustrates how EELS outperforms Mars rovers in coping with unknown terrain. The proposed paradigm and the development of EELS represent a significant shift in robotic exploration strategies for future missions beyond Mars.

A2F Conference hall (1236), Via Zoom

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NASA Capture, Containment, and Return System: Bringing Mars Samples to Earth

Bruno Victorino Sarli
Heliospace Corp. and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

The Capture, Containment, and Return System (CCRS) project is NASA's last step in bringing back Mars samples. CCRS will close a decades-long multi-mission and multi-agency effort to bring Mars surface samples back to Earth for scientific studies. CCRS will launch in 2027 on the European Earth Return Orbiter (ERO) spacecraft, which will provide communications relay for the Mars Sample Return ground missions, Perseverance rover and the Sample Retrieval Lander (SRL) (to be launched in 2028). The main mission for CCRS begins when the first-ever orbital planetary capture operation occurs with CCRS catching and securing the Orbiting Sample (OS) in low Mars orbit. From this point, the system will perform additional "firsts": it will autonomously contain the OS with heat-shrink-fit, sterilize the outside surface, and assemble the Earth entry capsule, named Earth Entry System (EES), in orbit around Mars using a gantry mechanism. At approximately 2.8 Lunar distances from Earth, or 3-days before entry into Earth's atmosphere, CCRS will open its micrometeoroid shield and release the EES on a ballistic trajectory to Earth. The EES is designed to be a fully passive system that will enter the atmosphere and land without a parachute at the Utah Test and Training Range (UTTR).

A2F Conference hall (1236), Via Zoom