Main Objective: Examine the effect of the waves propagating in the lower solar atmosphere on the abundance variation (First Ionization Potential (FIP) fractionation)
Scientific Justification: The various structures in solar atmosphere have different solar abundances, photospheric or coronal. Our goal is to understand how the solar abundances changes in different plasma structures along the solar atmosphere. So far, several theoretical models propose that the waves in the lower solar atmosphere preferentially effect on the ionized particles more than neutral ones depending on their magnetic field configurations and environmental plasma characteristics, which are the main causes for the abundance variations (Laming 2012, 2017).
To examine the effect of the waves and characteristics of the environmental plasma on the elemental abundance variation, we propose to observe the elemental abundances and chromospheric waves in various solar structures (quiet and active regions) using the Hinode/EIS coordinating with IRIS and BBSO/GST. The abundance variation can be measured from the FIP bias factor observed by EIS (Brooks et al. 2015, Lee et al. 2015, Doschek et al. 2018, Doschek & Warren 2019, Baker et al. 2020). However, the connections between abundances and wave characteristics are uncertain due to the difficulties of detecting waves. The higher spatial and temporal resolutions of FISS observations and the analysis method provides a capability to investigate wave characteristics. Recent work by Chae et al. (ApJL, accepted) detected the Alfven waves in the chromosphere at the sunspot penumbra from the FISS (Fast Imaging Solar Spectrograph) data. By taking advantage of the coordinate observations with FISS/GST and IRIS, we will investigate the effect of the waves on the abundance variation (FIP bias factor observed by EIS) in the corona.
Baker et al., 2020, ApJ, 894, 35
Brooks et al., 2015, NatCO, 6, 5947
Doschek et al., 2015, ApJ, 808, 7
Doschek & Warren, 2019, ApJ, 884, 158
Laming, 2012, ApJ, 744, 115
Laming, 2017, ApJ, 844, 153
Lee et al. 2015, ApJ, 809, 114
Chae et al., accepted, ApJL